Python 3.6

Posted : admin On 1/26/2022

Python is a programming language that lets you work more quickly and integrate your systems more effectively. You can learn to use Python and see almost immediate gains in productivity and lower maintenance costs. There are now newer security-fix releases of Python 3.6 that supersede 3.6.6 and Python 3.8 is now the latest feature release of Python 3. Get the latest releases of 3.6.x and 3.8.x here. Python 3.6.8 is planned to be the last bugfix release for 3.6.x. Following the release of 3.6.8, we plan to provide security fixes for Python 3.6 as needed through 2021, five years following its initial release. Among the new major new features in Python 3.6 were. Since Python 3.6 is installed in the universe repository of Ubuntu 16.10 and Ubuntu 17.04, you can directly install python 3.6 from the repository. Just use the commands below: sudo apt update sudo apt install python3.6 Ubuntu 16.04. There are two ways to install Python3.6 on Ubuntu 16.04.

Source code:Lib/tempfile.py

This module creates temporary files and directories. It works on allsupported platforms. TemporaryFile, NamedTemporaryFile,TemporaryDirectory, and SpooledTemporaryFile are high-levelinterfaces which provide automatic cleanup and can be used ascontext managers. mkstemp() andmkdtemp() are lower-level functions which require manual cleanup.

All the user-callable functions and constructors take additional arguments whichallow direct control over the location and name of temporary files anddirectories. Files names used by this module include a string ofrandom characters which allows those files to be securely created inshared temporary directories.To maintain backward compatibility, the argument order is somewhat odd; itis recommended to use keyword arguments for clarity.

The module defines the following user-callable items:

tempfile.TemporaryFile(mode='w+b', buffering=-1, encoding=None, newline=None, suffix=None, prefix=None, dir=None, *, errors=None)

Return a file-like object that can be used as a temporary storage area.The file is created securely, using the same rules as mkstemp(). It will be destroyed as soonas it is closed (including an implicit close when the object is garbagecollected). Under Unix, the directory entry for the file is either not created at all or is removedimmediately after the file is created. Other platforms do not supportthis; your code should not rely on a temporary file created using thisfunction having or not having a visible name in the file system.

The resulting object can be used as a context manager (seeExamples). On completion of the context ordestruction of the file object the temporary file will be removedfrom the filesystem.

The mode parameter defaults to 'w+b' so that the file created canbe read and written without being closed. Binary mode is used so that itbehaves consistently on all platforms without regard for the data that isstored. buffering, encoding, errors and newline are interpreted as foropen().

The dir, prefix and suffix parameters have the same meaning anddefaults as with mkstemp().

The returned object is a true file object on POSIX platforms. On otherplatforms, it is a file-like object whose file attribute is theunderlying true file object.

Python 3.6.8

The os.O_TMPFILE flag is used if it is available and works(Linux-specific, requires Linux kernel 3.11 or later).

Raises an auditing eventtempfile.mkstemp with argument fullpath.

Changed in version 3.5: The os.O_TMPFILE flag is now used if available.

tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(mode='w+b', buffering=-1, encoding=None, newline=None, suffix=None, prefix=None, dir=None, delete=True, *, errors=None)

This function operates exactly as TemporaryFile() does, except thatthe file is guaranteed to have a visible name in the file system (onUnix, the directory entry is not unlinked). That name can be retrievedfrom the name attribute of the returnedfile-like object. Whether the name can beused to open the file a second time, while the named temporary file isstill open, varies across platforms (it can be so used on Unix; it cannoton Windows NT or later). If delete is true (the default), the file isdeleted as soon as it is closed.The returned object is always a file-like object whose fileattribute is the underlying true file object. This file-like object canbe used in a with statement, just like a normal file.

Raises an auditing eventtempfile.mkstemp with argument fullpath.

Changed in version 3.8: Added errors parameter.

tempfile.SpooledTemporaryFile(max_size=0, mode='w+b', buffering=-1, encoding=None, newline=None, suffix=None, prefix=None, dir=None, *, errors=None)

This function operates exactly as TemporaryFile() does, except thatdata is spooled in memory until the file size exceeds max_size, oruntil the file’s fileno() method is called, at which point thecontents are written to disk and operation proceeds as withTemporaryFile().

The resulting file has one additional method, rollover(), whichcauses the file to roll over to an on-disk file regardless of its size.

The returned object is a file-like object whose _file attributeis either an io.BytesIO or io.TextIOWrapper object(depending on whether binary or text mode was specified) or a true fileobject, depending on whether rollover() has been called. Thisfile-like object can be used in a with statement, just likea normal file.

Changed in version 3.3: the truncate method now accepts a size argument.

tempfile.TemporaryDirectory(suffix=None, prefix=None, dir=None)

This function securely creates a temporary directory using the same rules as mkdtemp().The resulting object can be used as a context manager (seeExamples). On completion of the context or destructionof the temporary directory object the newly created temporary directoryand all its contents are removed from the filesystem.

The directory name can be retrieved from the name attribute of thereturned object. When the returned object is used as a context manager, thename will be assigned to the target of the as clause inthe with statement, if there is one.

The directory can be explicitly cleaned up by calling thecleanup() method.

Raises an auditing eventtempfile.mkdtemp with argument fullpath.

New in version 3.2.

tempfile.mkstemp(suffix=None, prefix=None, dir=None, text=False)

Creates a temporary file in the most secure manner possible. There areno race conditions in the file’s creation, assuming that the platformproperly implements the os.O_EXCL flag for os.open(). Thefile is readable and writable only by the creating user ID. If theplatform uses permission bits to indicate whether a file is executable,the file is executable by no one. The file descriptor is not inheritedby child processes.

Unlike TemporaryFile(), the user of mkstemp() is responsiblefor deleting the temporary file when done with it.

If suffix is not None, the file name will end with that suffix,otherwise there will be no suffix. mkstemp() does not put a dotbetween the file name and the suffix; if you need one, put it at thebeginning of suffix.

If prefix is not None, the file name will begin with that prefix;otherwise, a default prefix is used. The default is the return value ofgettempprefix() or gettempprefixb(), as appropriate.

If dir is not None, the file will be created in that directory;otherwise, a default directory is used. The default directory is chosenfrom a platform-dependent list, but the user of the application cancontrol the directory location by setting the TMPDIR, TEMP or TMPenvironment variables. There is thus no guarantee that the generatedfilename will have any nice properties, such as not requiring quotingwhen passed to external commands via os.popen().

If any of suffix, prefix, and dir are notNone, they must be the same type.If they are bytes, the returned name will be bytes instead of str.If you want to force a bytes return value with otherwise default behavior,pass suffix=b'.

If text is specified and true, the file is opened in text mode.Otherwise, (the default) the file is opened in binary mode.

mkstemp() returns a tuple containing an OS-level handle to an openfile (as would be returned by os.open()) and the absolute pathnameof that file, in that order.

Raises an auditing eventtempfile.mkstemp with argument fullpath.

Changed in version 3.5: suffix, prefix, and dir may now be supplied in bytes in order toobtain a bytes return value. Prior to this, only str was allowed.suffix and prefix now accept and default to None to causean appropriate default value to be used.

Changed in version 3.6: The dir parameter now accepts a path-like object.

tempfile.mkdtemp(suffix=None, prefix=None, dir=None)

Creates a temporary directory in the most secure manner possible. Thereare no race conditions in the directory’s creation. The directory isreadable, writable, and searchable only by the creating user ID.

The user of mkdtemp() is responsible for deleting the temporarydirectory and its contents when done with it.

The prefix, suffix, and dir arguments are the same as formkstemp().

mkdtemp() returns the absolute pathname of the new directory.

Raises an auditing eventtempfile.mkdtemp with argument fullpath.

Changed in version 3.5: suffix, prefix, and dir may now be supplied in bytes in order toobtain a bytes return value. Prior to this, only str was allowed.suffix and prefix now accept and default to None to causean appropriate default value to be used.

Changed in version 3.6: The dir parameter now accepts a path-like object.

tempfile.gettempdir()

Return the name of the directory used for temporary files. Thisdefines the default value for the dir argument to all functionsin this module.

Python searches a standard list of directories to find one whichthe calling user can create files in. The list is:

  1. The directory named by the TMPDIR environment variable.

  2. The directory named by the TEMP environment variable.

  3. The directory named by the TMP environment variable.

  4. A platform-specific location:

    • On Windows, the directories C:TEMP, C:TMP,TEMP, and TMP, in that order.

    • On all other platforms, the directories /tmp, /var/tmp, and/usr/tmp, in that order.

  5. As a last resort, the current working directory.

The result of this search is cached, see the description oftempdir below.

tempfile.gettempdirb()

Same as gettempdir() but the return value is in bytes.

tempfile.gettempprefix()

Return the filename prefix used to create temporary files. This does notcontain the directory component.

tempfile.gettempprefixb()

Same as gettempprefix() but the return value is in bytes.

New in version 3.5.

The module uses a global variable to store the name of the directoryused for temporary files returned by gettempdir(). It can beset directly to override the selection process, but this is discouraged.All functions in this module take a dir argument which can be usedto specify the directory and this is the recommended approach.

tempfile.tempdir

When set to a value other than None, this variable defines thedefault value for the dir argument to the functions defined in thismodule.

If tempdir is None (the default) at any call to any of the abovefunctions except gettempprefix() it is initialized following thealgorithm described in gettempdir().

Examples¶

Here are some examples of typical usage of the tempfile module:

Deprecated functions and variables¶

Py2exe Python 3.6

A historical way to create temporary files was to first generate afile name with the mktemp() function and then create a fileusing this name. Unfortunately this is not secure, because a differentprocess may create a file with this name in the time between the callto mktemp() and the subsequent attempt to create the file by thefirst process. The solution is to combine the two steps and create thefile immediately. This approach is used by mkstemp() and theother functions described above.

tempfile.mktemp(suffix=', prefix='tmp', dir=None)

Deprecated since version 2.3: Use mkstemp() instead.

Return an absolute pathname of a file that did not exist at the time thecall is made. The prefix, suffix, and dir arguments are similarto those of mkstemp(), except that bytes file names, suffix=Noneand prefix=None are not supported.

Python 3.6

Idle Python 3.5 Download

Warning

Use of this function may introduce a security hole in your program. Bythe time you get around to doing anything with the file name it returns,someone else may have beaten you to the punch. mktemp() usage canbe replaced easily with NamedTemporaryFile(), passing it thedelete=False parameter:

Release Date: June 27, 2018

Python 3.6.6 was the sixth maintenance release of Python 3.6.

Download Python 3.9

There are now newer security-fix releases of Python 3.6 that supersede 3.6.6 and Python 3.8 is now the latest feature release of Python 3. Get the latest releases of 3.6.x and 3.8.x here. Python 3.6.8 is planned to be the last bugfix releasefor 3.6.x. Following the release of 3.6.8, we plan to provide security fixes for Python 3.6 as needed through 2021, five years following its initial release.

Among the new major new features in Python 3.6 were:

  • PEP 468, Preserving Keyword Argument Order
  • PEP 487, Simpler customization of class creation
  • PEP 495, Local Time Disambiguation
  • PEP 498, Literal String Formatting
  • PEP 506, Adding A Secrets Module To The Standard Library
  • PEP 509, Add a private version to dict
  • PEP 515, Underscores in Numeric Literals
  • PEP 519, Adding a file system path protocol
  • PEP 520, Preserving Class Attribute Definition Order
  • PEP 523, Adding a frame evaluation API to CPython
  • PEP 524, Make os.urandom() blocking on Linux (during system startup)
  • PEP 525, Asynchronous Generators (provisional)
  • PEP 526, Syntax for Variable Annotations (provisional)
  • PEP 528, Change Windows console encoding to UTF-8
  • PEP 529, Change Windows filesystem encoding to UTF-8
  • PEP 530, Asynchronous Comprehensions

Please see What’s New In Python 3.6 for more information.

  • PEP 494, 3.6 Release Schedule
  • Report bugs at https://bugs.python.org.
  • Help fund Python and its community.

Python 3.6.5

  • The binaries for AMD64 will also work on processors that implement the Intel 64 architecture. (Also known as the 'x64' architecture, and formerly known as both 'EM64T' and 'x86-64'.)
  • If installing Python 3.6 as a non-privileged user, you may need to escalate to administrator privileges to install an update to your C runtime libraries.
  • There are now 'web-based' installers for Windows platforms; the installer will download the needed software components at installation time.
  • There are redistributable zip files containing the Windows builds, making it easy to redistribute Python as part of another software package. Please see the documentation regarding Embedded Distribution for more information.
  • NEW as of 3.6.5: we are providing two binary installer options for download. The new variant works on macOS 10.9 (Mavericks) and later systems and comes with its own batteries-included version oF Tcl/Tk 8.6 for users of IDLE and other tkinter-based GUI applications. It is 64-bit only as Apple is deprecating 32-bit support in future macOS releases. For 3.6.5+, the 10.9+ variant is offered as an additional more modern alternative to the traditional 10.6+ variant in earlier 3.6.x releases. The 10.6+ variant still requires installing a third-party version of Tcl/Tk 8.5. If you are using macOS 10.9 or later, consider using the new installer variant, unless you are building Python applications that also need to work on older macOS systems. Binary extension modules (including wheels) built for earlier versions of 3.6.x with the 10.6 variant should continue to work with either 3.6.6 variant without recompilation.
  • Both python.org installer variants include private copies of OpenSSL 1.0.2. Please carefully read the Important Information displayed during installation for information about SSL/TLS certificate validation and the Install Certificates.command.

Python 3.6 Idle

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