Python Html

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  1. Python Html Escape
  2. Html Python Library
  3. Python Html Unescape
  4. Python Htmlmin
  5. Read And Parse Html In Python
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HTML parser based on the WHATWG HTML specification

Project description

html5lib is a pure-python library for parsing HTML. It is designed toconform to the WHATWG HTML specification, as is implemented by all majorweb browsers.


Simple usage follows this pattern:


By default, the document will be an xml.etree element instance.Whenever possible, html5lib chooses the accelerated ElementTreeimplementation (i.e. xml.etree.cElementTree on Python 2.x).

Two other tree types are supported: xml.dom.minidom andlxml.etree. To use an alternative format, specify the name ofa treebuilder:

When using with urllib2 (Python 2), the charset from HTTP should bepass into html5lib as follows:

When using with urllib.request (Python 3), the charset from HTTPshould be pass into html5lib as follows:

To have more control over the parser, create a parser object explicitly.For instance, to make the parser raise exceptions on parse errors, use:

When you’re instantiating parser objects explicitly, pass a treebuilderclass as the tree keyword argument to use an alternative documentformat:

More documentation is available at


html5lib works on CPython 2.6+, CPython 3.3+ and PyPy. To install it,use:

Optional Dependencies

The following third-party libraries may be used for additionalfunctionality:

  • datrie can be used under CPython to improve parsing performance(though in almost all cases the improvement is marginal);
  • lxml is supported as a tree format (for both building andwalking) under CPython (but not PyPy where it is known to causesegfaults);
  • genshi has a treewalker (but not builder); and
  • chardet can be used as a fallback when character encoding cannotbe determined.


Unit tests require the pytest and mock libraries and can berun using the py.test command in the root directory;ordereddict is required under Python 2.6. All should pass.

Test data are contained in a separate html5lib-tests repository and includedas a submodule, thus for git checkouts they must be initialized:

Python Html Escape

If you have all compatible Python implementations available on yoursystem, you can run tests on all of them using the tox utility,which can be found on PyPI.


There’s a mailing list available for support on Google Groups,html5lib-discuss,though you may get a quicker response asking on IRC in #whatwg

Change Log


Released on July 14, 2016

  • Added ordereddict as a mandatory dependency on Python 2.6.
  • Added lxml, genshi, datrie, charade, and allextras that will do the right thing based on the specificinterpreter implementation.
  • Now requires the mock package for the testsuite.
  • Cease supporting DATrie under PyPy.
  • Remove ``PullDOM`` support, as this hasn’t ever been properlytested, doesn’t entirely work, and as far as I can tell iscompletely unused by anyone.
  • Move testsuite to py.test.
  • Fix #124: move to webencodings for decoding the input byte stream;this makes html5lib compliant with the Encoding Standard, andintroduces a required dependency on webencodings.
  • Cease supporting Python 3.2 (in both CPython and PyPy forms).
  • Fix comments containing double-dash with lxml 3.5 and above.
  • Use scripting disabled by default (as we don’t implementscripting).
  • Fix #11, avoiding the XSS bug potentially caused by serializerallowing attribute values to be escaped out of in old browser versions,changing the quote_attr_values option on serializer to take one ofthree values, “always” (the old True value), “legacy” (the new option,and the new default), and “spec” (the old False value, and the olddefault).
  • Fix #72 by rewriting the sanitizer to apply only to treewalkers(instead of the tokenizer); as such, this will require amending allcallers of it to use it via the treewalker API.
  • Drop support of charade, now that chardet is supported once more.
  • Replace the charset keyword argument on parse and related methodswith a set of keyword arguments: override_encoding, transport_encoding,same_origin_parent_encoding, likely_encoding, and default_encoding.
  • Move filters._base, treebuilder._base, and treewalkers._base to .baseto clarify their status as public.
  • Get rid of the sanitizer package. Merge sanitizer.sanitize into thesanitizer.htmlsanitizer module and move that to saniziter. This meansanyone who used sanitizer.sanitize or sanitizer.HTMLSanitizer needs nocode changes.
  • Rename treewalkers.lxmletree to .etree_lxml andtreewalkers.genshistream to .genshi to have a consistent API.
  • Move a whole load of stuff (inputstream, ihatexml, trie, tokenizer,utils) to be underscore prefixed to clarify their status as private.


Released on September 10, 2015

  • Fix #195: fix the sanitizer to drop broken URLs (it threw anexception between 0.9999 and 0.999999).


Released on July 7, 2015

  • Fix #189: fix the sanitizer to allow relative URLs again (as it didprior to 0.9999/1.0b5).


Html Python Library


Released on April 30, 2015

  • Fix #188: fix the sanitizer to not throw an exception when sanitizingbogus data URLs.


Released on April 29, 2015

  • Fix #153: Sanitizer fails to treat some attributes as URLs. Despite howthis sounds, this has no known security implications. No known versionof IE (5.5 to current), Firefox (3 to current), Safari (6 to current),Chrome (1 to current), or Opera (12 to current) will run any scriptprovided in these attributes.
  • Pass error message to the ParseError exception in strict parsing mode.
  • Allow data URIs in the sanitizer, with a whitelist of content-types.
  • Add support for Python implementations that don’t support lonesurrogates (read: Jython). Fixes #2.
  • Remove localization of error messages. This functionality was totallyunused (and untested that everything was localizable), so we may aswell follow numerous browsers in not supporting translating technicalstrings.
  • Expose treewalkers.pprint as a public API.
  • Add a documentEncoding property to HTML5Parser, fix #121.


Released on December 23, 2013

  • Fix #127: add work-around for CPython issue #20007: .read(0) onhttp.client.HTTPResponse drops the rest of the content.
  • Fix #115: lxml treewalker can now deal with fragments containing, attheir root level, text nodes with non-ASCII characters on Python 2.


Released on September 10, 2013

  • No library changes from 1.0b3; released as 0.99 as pip has changedbehaviour from 1.4 to avoid installing pre-release versions perPEP 440.


Released on July 24, 2013

  • Removed RecursiveTreeWalker from treewalkers._base. Anyimplementation using it should be moved toNonRecursiveTreeWalker, as everything bundled with html5lib hasfor years.
  • Fix #67 so that BufferedStream to correctly returns a bytesobject, thereby fixing any case where html5lib is passed anon-seekable RawIOBase-like object.


Released on June 27, 2013

  • Removed reordering of attributes within the serializer. There is nowan alphabetical_attributes option which preserves the previousbehaviour through a new filter. This allows attribute order to bepreserved through html5lib if the tree builder preserves order.
  • Removed dom2sax from DOM treebuilders. It has been replaced bytreeadapters.sax.to_sax which is generic and supports anytreewalker; it also resolves all known bugs with dom2sax.
  • Fix treewalker assertions on hitting bytes strings onPython 2. Previous to 1.0b1, treewalkers coped with mixedbytes/unicode data on Python 2; this reintroduces this priorbehaviour on Python 2. Behaviour is unchanged on Python 3.


Released on May 17, 2013

  • Implementation updated to implement the HTML specification as of 5th May2013 (SVN revision r7867).
  • Python 3.2+ supported in a single codebase using the six library.
  • Removed support for Python 2.5 and older.
  • Removed the deprecated Beautiful Soup 3 treebuilder.beautifulsoup4 can use html5lib as a parser instead. Note thatsince it doesn’t support namespaces, foreign content like SVG andMathML is parsed incorrectly.
  • Removed simpletree from the package. The default tree builder isnow etree (using the xml.etree.cElementTree implementation ifavailable, and xml.etree.ElementTree otherwise).
  • Removed the XHTMLSerializer as it never actually guaranteed itsoutput was well-formed XML, and hence provided little of use.
  • Removed default DOM treebuilder, so html5lib.treebuilders.dom is nolonger supported. html5lib.treebuilders.getTreeBuilder('dom') willreturn the default DOM treebuilder, which uses xml.dom.minidom.
  • Optional heuristic character encoding detection now based oncharade for Python 2.6 - 3.3 compatibility.
  • Optional Genshi treewalker support fixed.
  • Many bugfixes, including:
    • #33: null in attribute value breaks XML AttValue;
    • #4: nested, indirect descendant, <button> causes infinite loop;
    • Google Code 215: Properlydetect seekable streams;
    • Google Code 206: addsupport for <video preload=…>, <audio preload=…>;
    • Google Code 205: addsupport for <video poster=…>;
    • Google Code 202: Unicodefile breaks InputStream.
  • Source code is now mostly PEP 8 compliant.
  • Test harness has been improved and now depends on nose.
  • Documentation updated and moved to


Released on January 17, 2010


Released on June 10, 2008


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Source code:Lib/html/

This module defines a class HTMLParser which serves as the basis forparsing text files formatted in HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language) and XHTML.

class html.parser.HTMLParser(*, convert_charrefs=True)

Create a parser instance able to parse invalid markup.

If convert_charrefs is True (the default), all characterreferences (except the ones in script/style elements) areautomatically converted to the corresponding Unicode characters.

An HTMLParser instance is fed HTML data and calls handler methodswhen start tags, end tags, text, comments, and other markup elements areencountered. The user should subclass HTMLParser and override itsmethods to implement the desired behavior.

This parser does not check that end tags match start tags or call the end-taghandler for elements which are closed implicitly by closing an outer element.

Changed in version 3.4: convert_charrefs keyword argument added.

Changed in version 3.5: The default value for argument convert_charrefs is now True.

Example HTML Parser Application¶

As a basic example, below is a simple HTML parser that uses theHTMLParser class to print out start tags, end tags, and dataas they are encountered:

The output will then be:

HTMLParser Methods¶

HTMLParser instances have the following methods:


Feed some text to the parser. It is processed insofar as it consists ofcomplete elements; incomplete data is buffered until more data is fed orclose() is called. data must be str.


Force processing of all buffered data as if it were followed by an end-of-filemark. This method may be redefined by a derived class to define additionalprocessing at the end of the input, but the redefined version should always callthe HTMLParser base class method close().


Reset the instance. Loses all unprocessed data. This is called implicitly atinstantiation time.


Return current line number and offset.


Return the text of the most recently opened start tag. This should not normallybe needed for structured processing, but may be useful in dealing with HTML “asdeployed” or for re-generating input with minimal changes (whitespace betweenattributes can be preserved, etc.).

The following methods are called when data or markup elements are encounteredand they are meant to be overridden in a subclass. The base classimplementations do nothing (except for handle_startendtag()):

HTMLParser.handle_starttag(tag, attrs)

Python Html Unescape

This method is called to handle the start of a tag (e.g. <divid='main'>).

The tag argument is the name of the tag converted to lower case. The attrsargument is a list of (name,value) pairs containing the attributes foundinside the tag’s <> brackets. The name will be translated to lower case,and quotes in the value have been removed, and character and entity referenceshave been replaced.

For instance, for the tag <AHREF=''>, this methodwould be called as handle_starttag('a',[('href','')]).

All entity references from html.entities are replaced in the attributevalues.


This method is called to handle the end tag of an element (e.g. </div>).

The tag argument is the name of the tag converted to lower case.

HTMLParser.handle_startendtag(tag, attrs)

Python Htmlmin

Similar to handle_starttag(), but called when the parser encounters anXHTML-style empty tag (<img.../>). This method may be overridden bysubclasses which require this particular lexical information; the defaultimplementation simply calls handle_starttag() and handle_endtag().


This method is called to process arbitrary data (e.g. text nodes and thecontent of <script>...</script> and <style>...</style>).


This method is called to process a named character reference of the form&name; (e.g. &gt;), where name is a general entity reference(e.g. 'gt'). This method is never called if convert_charrefs isTrue.


This method is called to process decimal and hexadecimal numeric characterreferences of the form &#NNN; and &#xNNN;. For example, the decimalequivalent for &gt; is &#62;, whereas the hexadecimal is &#x3E;;in this case the method will receive '62' or 'x3E'. This methodis never called if convert_charrefs is True.


This method is called when a comment is encountered (e.g. <!--comment-->).

For example, the comment <!--comment--> will cause this method to becalled with the argument 'comment'.

The content of Internet Explorer conditional comments (condcoms) will also besent to this method, so, for <!--[ifIE9]>IE9-specificcontent<![endif]-->,this method will receive '[ifIE9]>IE9-specificcontent<![endif]'.


Read And Parse Html In Python

This method is called to handle an HTML doctype declaration (e.g.<!DOCTYPEhtml>).

The decl parameter will be the entire contents of the declaration insidethe <!...> markup (e.g. 'DOCTYPEhtml').


Method called when a processing instruction is encountered. The dataparameter will contain the entire processing instruction. For example, for theprocessing instruction <?proccolor='red'>, this method would be called ashandle_pi('proccolor='red'). It is intended to be overridden by a derivedclass; the base class implementation does nothing.


The HTMLParser class uses the SGML syntactic rules for processinginstructions. An XHTML processing instruction using the trailing '?' willcause the '?' to be included in data.


This method is called when an unrecognized declaration is read by the parser.

The data parameter will be the entire contents of the declaration insidethe <![...]> markup. It is sometimes useful to be overridden by aderived class. The base class implementation does nothing.


The following class implements a parser that will be used to illustrate moreexamples:

Parsing a doctype:

Parsing an element with a few attributes and a title:

The content of script and style elements is returned as is, withoutfurther parsing:

Parsing comments:

Parsing named and numeric character references and converting them to thecorrect char (note: these 3 references are all equivalent to '>'):

Feeding incomplete chunks to feed() works, buthandle_data() might be called more than once(unless convert_charrefs is set to True):

Parsing invalid HTML (e.g. unquoted attributes) also works: