Tomcat Server Mode

Posted : admin On 1/24/2022
  1. Tomcat Server Debugging
  2. Tomcat Server Deploy
  3. Tomcat Server Meaning
  4. Tomcat Server Debug Mode
  5. Tomcat Server Monitoring
  6. Tomcat Server Mode Free
  7. Tomcat Server Download

Windows Service How-To

Spring Boot, for example, uses an embedded Tomcat instance running in dev mode. Running an embedded server can net simplicity in terms of operations, since you are now dealing with just a single.

Table of Contents

Tomcat Server Debugging

  • First difference that server mode does is turns on Parallel GC, it is a throughput garbage collector, recommended for multi-core machines. In general, it will give you shorter delays for garbage collection. Second, server mode will use more aggressive optimizations in the JIT. I think server mode is a must have on production machine.
  • Apache Tomcat Server. Apache tomcat server is a open source web server that is developed by Apache software foundation. It allows to run servlet and Java Server Pages(JSP) based web applications. It provides HTTP server environment for the Java code to run.It has the build in servlet container called Catalina in the tomcat bin directory.
  • Apache Tomcat is mainly used as a servlet container in WSO2 Carbon based servers. It runs in embedded mode in all servers. It also holds some useful J2EE features such as the ability to deploy webapps, JSP support, JNDI capabilities, JDBC data-sources, clustering, virtual hosting, and so on.

Tomcat service application

Tomcat8 is a service application for running Tomcat 8 as a Windows service.

Tomcat monitor application

Tomcat8w is a GUI application for monitoring and configuring Tomcat services.

The available command line options are:

//ES//Edit service configurationThis is the default operation. It is called if the no option is provided but the executable is renamed to servicenameW.exe
//MS//Monitor servicePut the icon in the system tray

Command line arguments

Each command line directive is in the form of //XX//ServiceName

The available command line options are:

//TS//Run the service as console applicationThis is the default operation. It is called if the no option is provided. The ServiceName is the name of the executable without exe suffix, meaning Tomcat8
//RS//Run the serviceCalled only from ServiceManager
//SS//Stop the service
//US//Update service parameters
//IS//Install service
//DS//Delete serviceStops the service if running

Command line parameters

Each command line parameter is prefixed with --. If the command line parameter is prefixed with ++ then it's value will be appended to the existing option. If the environment variable with the same name as command line parameter but prefixed with PR_ exists it will take precedence. For example:

is equivalent to providing


as command line parameter.

--DescriptionService name description (maximum 1024 characters)
--DisplayNameServiceNameService display name
--Installprocrun.exe //RS//ServiceNameInstall image
--StartupmanualService startup mode can be either auto or manual
--DependsOnList of services that this service depend on. Dependent services are separated using either # or ; characters
--EnvironmentList of environment variables that will be provided to the service in the form key=value. They are separated using either # or ; characters. If you need to use either the # or ; character within a value then the entire value must be enclosed inside single quotes.
--UserUser account used for running executable. It is used only for StartMode java or exe and enables running applications as service under account without LogonAsService privilege.
--PasswordPassword for user account set by --User parameter
--JavaHomeJAVA_HOMESet a different JAVA_HOME than defined by JAVA_HOME environment variable
--JvmautoUse either auto (i.e. find the JVM from the Windows registry) or specify the full path to the jvm.dll. You can use the environment variable expansion here.
--JvmOptions-XrsList of options in the form of -D or -X that will be passed to the JVM. The options are separated using either # or ; characters. If you need to embed either # or ; characters, put them inside single quotes. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmOptions9List of options in the form of -D or -X that will be passed to the JVM when running on Java 9 or later. The options are separated using either # or ; characters. If you need to embed either # or ; characters, put them inside single quotes. (Not used in exe mode.)
--ClasspathSet the Java classpath. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmMsInitial memory pool size in MB. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmMxMaximum memory pool size in MB. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmSsThread stack size in KB. (Not used in exe mode.)
--StartModeOne of jvm, Java or exe. The modes are:
  • jvm - start Java in-process. Depends on jvm.dll, see --Jvm.
  • Java - same as exe, but automatically uses the default Java executable, i.e. %JAVA_HOME%binjava.exe. Make sure JAVA_HOME is set correctly, or use --JavaHome to provide the correct location. If neither is set, procrun will try to find the default JDK (not JRE) from the Windows registry.
  • exe - run the image as a separate process
--StartImageExecutable that will be run. Only applies to exe mode.
--StartPathWorking path for the start image executable.
--StartClassMainClass that contains the startup method. Applies to the jvm and Java modes. (Not used in exe mode.)
--StartMethodmainMethod name if differs then main
--StartParamsList of parameters that will be passed to either StartImage or StartClass. Parameters are separated using either # or ; character.
--StopModeOne of jvm, Java or exe. See --StartMode for further details.
--StopImageExecutable that will be run on Stop service signal. Only applies to exe mode.
--StopPathWorking path for the stop image executable. Does not apply to jvm mode.
--StopClassMainClass that will be used on Stop service signal. Applies to the jvm and Java modes.
--StopMethodmainMethod name if differs then main
--StopParamsList of parameters that will be passed to either StopImage or StopClass. Parameters are separated using either # or ; character.
--StopTimeoutNo TimeoutDefines the timeout in seconds that procrun waits for service to exit gracefully.
--LogPath%SystemRoot%System32LogFilesApacheDefines the path for logging. Creates the directory if necessary.
--LogPrefixcommons-daemonDefines the service log filename prefix. The log file is created in the LogPath directory with .YEAR-MONTH-DAY.log suffix
--LogLevelInfoDefines the logging level and can be either Error, Info, Warn or Debug. (Case insensitive).
--StdOutputRedirected stdout filename. If named auto then file is created inside LogPath with the name service-stdout.YEAR-MONTH-DAY.log.
--StdErrorRedirected stderr filename. If named auto then file is created inside LogPath with the name service-stderr.YEAR-MONTH-DAY.log.
--PidFileDefines the file name for storing the running process id. Actual file is created in the LogPath directory

Installing services

The safest way to manually install the service is to use the providedservice.bat script. Administrator privileges are required to run thisscript. If necessary, you can use the /user switch to specifya user to use for the installation of the service.

NOTE: If User Account Control (UAC) is enabled you will beasked for additional privileges when 'Tomcat8.exe' is launched bythe script.
If you want to pass additional options to service installer asPR_* environment variables, you have to either configure themglobally in OS, or launch the program that sets them with elevated privileges(e.g. right-click on cmd.exe and select 'Run as administrator'; on Windows 8(or later) or Windows Server 2012 (or later), you can open an elevated commandprompt for the current directory from the Explorerby clicking on the 'File' menu bar). See issue 56143 for details.

There is a 2nd optional parameter that lets you specify the name of theservice, as displayed in Windows services.

When installing the service with a non-default name,tomcat8.exe and tomcat8w.exe may be renamed tomatch the chosen service name. To do this, use the --renameoption.

If using tomcat8.exe, you need to use the //IS// parameter.

Tomcat Server Deploy

Updating services

To update the service parameters, you need to use the //US// parameter.

If you gave the service an optional name, you need to specify it like this:

Removing services

To remove the service, you need to use the //DS// parameter.
If the service is running it will be stopped and then deleted.

If you gave the service an optional name, you need to specify it like this:

Debugging services

To run the service in console mode, you need to use the //TS// parameter.The service shutdown can be initiated by pressing CTRL+C orCTRL+BREAK.If you rename the tomcat8.exe to testservice.exe then you can just execute thetestservice.exe and this command mode will be executed by default.

Multiple Instances

Tomcat supports installation of multiple instances. You can have a singleinstallation of Tomcat with multiple instances running on different IP/portcombinations, or multiple Tomcat versions, each running one or more instances ondifferent IP/ports.

Each instance folder will need the following structure:

  • conf
  • logs
  • temp
  • webapps
  • work

At a minimum, conf should contain a copy of the following files fromCATALINA_HOMEconf. Any files not copied and edited, will be picked up bydefault from CATALINA_HOMEconf, i.e. CATALINA_BASEconf files override defaultsfrom CATALINA_HOMEconf.

  • server.xml
  • web.xml

You must edit CATALINA_BASEconfserver.xml to specify a unique IP/port for theinstance to listen on. Find the line that contains<Connector port='8080' ... and add an address attribute and/orupdate the port number so as to specify a unique IP/port combination.

To install an instance, first set the CATALINA_HOME environment variable to thename of the Tomcat installation directory. Then create a second environmentvariable CATALINA_BASE and point this to the instance folder. Then run'service.bat install' command specifying a service name.

Tomcat Server Meaning

To modify the service settings, you can run tomcat8w //ES//instance1.

For additional instances, create additional instance folder, update theCATALINA_BASE environment variable, and run the 'service.bat install' again.

Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a secure transfer protocol used for communication on the Internet using cryptographic methods. The main purpose of the SSL protocol is to guarantee that no one can tamper with the communication between a browser and the server where the web application is deployed. Another purpose of secure communication is the ability to authenticate the server and its owner based on the SSL information – so that a user can be certain that the server that it’s accessing is the one that it’s saying it is. In a common SSL scenario, when the user accesses the web server for the first time, the server sends its SSL certificate, or public key, to the client. The SSL certificate contains the information about the server, its owner, company, and its validity period. A user can reject a certificate if it does not trust its authenticity, effectively terminating the connection. If the user accepts the certificate, the certificate itself is stored in the browser, and is used to initiate a secure connection with the issuing server.

Tomcat Server Debug Mode

SSL protocol communication over HTTP protocol is referred to as HTTPS (secure HTTP). The web sites that are using SSL encrypted connections display https as the protocol name in the browser’s address bar, for example . Organizations called Certificate Authorities (CA) can authenticate the details of the SSL certificate, so if the user trusts the CA, they can be sure that the secure web site is certified, and its details are correct. There is a number of CAs that can issue a certified SSL certificate. Modern browsers automatically recognize the largest and best-known CAs, and allow connections to the sites providing SSL certificates certified by these organizations automatically. If the SSL certificate is not certified by a CA, or is certified by the CA but not recognized by the user’s browser, the user will be presented with a warning screen, where he or she can decide whether to trust the certificate.

1) Generating Keystore

SSL certificates are JKS files. JKS format stands for Java KeyStore, which is a Java-specific keystore format. JKS keystore can be created and manipulated using the keytool utility application, distributed as part of Java SDK from version 1.4. Keytool, which we will use to create a self-signed SSL certificate, is located in the JAVA_HOME/bin/ directory.

It will create a .keystore file on your user home directory. On windows 7, its under C:Userslokesh.

You can only have one SSL certificate for one IP address. If you host multiple domains on the same IP, only one of these host names can have a valid SSL certificate that matches its domain name. If you try to use SSL for any other domain name on the same IP, the browser will display a warning that the domain name does not match the certificate. This is a known limitation of SSL, because an SSL protocol handshake must happen before the hostname is extracted from the HTTP request.

2) Updating Connector in server.xml

Open your Tomcat installation directory and open the conf folder. Inside this folder, you will find the server.xml file. Open it and find the following declaration:

And change it with this information. Do not forget to use your password and keystore path.

You are done. Now see the application changes.

3) Updating application’s web.xml with secured URLs

Now update your application’s web.xml file with following.

The url pattern is set to /* so any page/resource from your application is secure (it can be only accessed with https). The transport-guarantee tag is set to CONFIDENTIAL to make sure your app will work on SSL.

Now try to access the application using https://localhost:8443/application-one/. This will show the certificate information in browser.

Tomcat Server Monitoring

It will display the page only after you accept the certificate.

If you do not put above “security-constraint” in web.xml then you will be able to access your application directly using http://localhost:8080/application-one/.

Tomcat Server Mode Free

That’s all for this simple yet important concept regarding implementing SSL support in tomcat server.

Tomcat Server Download

Happy Learning !!